연구개발

[2021] Susceptibility of Women to Cardiovascular Disease and the Prevention Potential of Mind–Body Intervention by Changes in Neural Circuits and Cardiovascular Physiology
  • 저자Hyun-Jeong Yang, Eugene Koh, and Yunjeong Kang
  • 저널명Biomolecules
  • 초록Women have been reported to be more vulnerable to the development, prognosis and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, yet the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and strategies to overcome them are still relatively undeveloped. Studies show that women’s brains are more sensitive to factors affecting mental health such as depression and stress than men’s brains. In women, poor mental health increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and conversely, cardiovascular disease increases the incidence of mental illness such as depression. In connection with mental health and cardiovascular health, the presence of gender differences in brain activation, cortisol secretion, autonomic nervous system, vascular health and inflammatory response has been observed. This connection suggests that strategies to manage women’s mental health can contribute to preventing cardiovascular disease. Mind–body interventions, such as meditation, yoga and qigong are forms of exercise that strive to actively manage both mind and body. They can provide beneficial effects on stress reduction and mental health. They are also seen as structurally and functionally changing the brain, as well as affecting cortisol secretion, blood pressure, heart rate variability, immune reactions and reducing menopausal symptoms, thus positively affecting women’s cardiovascular health. In this review, we investigate the link between mental health, brain activation, HPA axis, autonomic nervous system, blood pressure and immune system associated with cardiovascular health in women and discuss the effects of mind–body intervention in modulating these factors.

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[2021] The effects of Korean red ginseng-derived components on oligodendrocyte lineage cells: Distinct facilitatory roles of the non-saponin and saponin fractions, and Rb1, in proliferation, differentiation and myelination
  • 저자Ahreum Lee, Oh Wook Kwon, Kwi Ryun Jung, Gyun Jee Song, Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Journal of Ginseng Research
  • 초록

    Background: Abnormalities of myelin, which increases the efficiency of action potential conduction, are found in neurological disorders. Korean red ginseng (KRG) demonstrates therapeutic efficacy against some of these conditions, however effects on oligodendrocyte (OL)s are not well known. Here, we examined the effects of KRG-derived components on development and protection of OL-lineage cells.

    Methods: Primary OL precursor cell (OPC) cultures were prepared from neonatal mouse cortex. The protective efficacies of the KRG components were examined against inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. For in vivo function of Rb1 on myelination, after 10 days of oral gavage into adult male mice, forebrains were collected. OPC proliferation were assessed by BrdU incorporation, and differentiation and myelination were examined by qPCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry.

    Results: The non-saponin promoted OPC proliferation, while the saponin promoted differentiation. Both processes were mediated by AKT and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. KRG extract, the saponin and non-saponin protected OPCs against oxidative stress, and both KRG extract and the saponin significantly increased the expression of the antioxidant enzyme. Among 11 major ginsenosides tested, Rb1 significantly increased OL membrane size in vitro. Moreover, Rb1 significantly increased myelin formation in adult mouse brain.

    Conclusion: All KRG components prevented OPC deaths under oxidative stress. While non-saponin promoted proliferation, saponin fraction increased differentiation and OL membrane size. Furthermore, among all the tested ginsenosides, Rb1 showed the biggest increase in the membrane size and significantly enhanced myelination in vivo. These results imply therapeutic potentials of KRG and Rb1 for myelin-related disorders.

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[2021] Changes Induced by Mind–Body Intervention Including Epigenetic Marks and Its Effects on Diabetes
  • 저자Hyun-Jeong Yang, Eugene Koh, Min-Kyu Sung and Hojung Kang
  • 저널명International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  • 초록Studies have evidenced that epigenetic marks associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be inherited from parents or acquired through fetal and early-life events, as well as through lifelong environments or lifestyles, which can increase the risk of diabetes in adulthood. However, epigenetic modifications are reversible, and can be altered through proper intervention, thus mitigating the risk factors of T2D. Mind–body intervention (MBI) refers to interventions like meditation, yoga, and qigong, which deal with both physical and mental well-being. MBI not only induces psychological changes, such as alleviation of depression, anxiety, and stress, but also physiological changes like parasympathetic activation, lower cortisol secretion, reduced inflammation, and aging rate delay, which are all risk factors for T2D. Notably, MBI has been reported to reduce blood glucose in patients with T2D. Herein, based on recent findings, we review the effects of MBI on diabetes and the mechanisms involved, including epigenetic modifications.    

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[2020] A cross-sectional study on the relationship between meditation training and emotional intelligence in women
  • 저자Min-Kyu Sung, Na Hyun Ha, Ul Soon Lee, Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Nursing Open
  • 초록Aim: We aimed to reveal the relationship of meditation with emotional intelligence (EI), sleep quality and melatonin level. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Our current research was performed on middle-aged women. EI scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and night-time saliva melatonin were measured for 65 participants including 33 meditators and 32 controls. Results: The meditation group showed a significantly higher EI score than the control group. In the regression analysis between EI and age, only the meditation group showed a significant positive correlation. The Pearson correlation analysis among all participants revealed a significant negative correlation between PSQI and EI. There was no significant group difference in the melatonin and PSQI.

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[2020] A potential association of meditation with menopausal symptoms and blood chemistry in healthy women: a pilot cross-sectional study
  • 저자Min-Kyu Sung , Ul Soon Lee, Na Hyun Ha, Eugene Koh, Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Medicine
  • 초록

    Owing to hormonal changes, women experience various psychophysiological alterations over a wide age range, which may result in decreased quality of life as well as in increased risks of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. Although studies have been performed to research complementary methods, such as meditation, the research field still requires an adequate amount of studies for public health guidelines. This pilot cross-sectional study aims to investigate a potential association of meditation with menopausal symptoms and blood chemistry for healthy women. In this study, data of 65 healthy women (age range 25–67) including 33 meditation practitioners and 32 meditation-naïve controls were analyzed to compare the Menopausal Rating Scale scores and blood chemistry with 7 more dropouts in the blood chemistry. For blood chemistry, nine components including glucose (GLU) and highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Two-way analysis of variance was performed by dividing the total participants into 2 groups: premenopausal and postmenopausal participants. Compared to the control group, the meditation group showed a trend of reductions in the Menopausal Rating Scale total score (P=.054) and its 2 subcomponents: depressive mood (P=.064) and irritability (P=.061). In HDL level, there was a significant interaction between group and menopausal state (P=.039) with following post hoc results: among the premenopausal participants, a significant increase in the meditation group compared to the control group (P=.005); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P=.030). In GLU level, there was a mild interaction between group and menopausal state (P=.070) with following post hoc results: among the postmenopausal participants, a trend of increase in the control group compared to the meditation group (P=.081); among the control group, a significant increase in the postmenopausal compared to the premenopausal participants (P=.040). Our research suggests a potential association of practicing meditation with alleviations in menopausal symptoms and changes in blood chemistry, warranting further studies with a longitudinal study design and larger populations to understand the underlying causal relationships.

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[2020] Meditative Movement Affects Working Memory Related to Neural Activity in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 저자Hojung Kang, Seung Chan An, Nah Ok Kim, Minkyu Sung, Yunjung Kang, Ul Soon Lee and Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Frontiers in Psychology
  • 초록Numerous studies have revealed that meditative movement changes brain activity and improves the cognitive function of adults. However, there is still insufficient data on whether meditative movement contributes to the cognitive function of adolescents whose brain is still under development. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover the effects of meditative movement on the cognitive performance and its relation with brain activity in adolescents. Forty healthy adolescent participants (mean age of 17∼18) were randomly allocated into two groups: meditative movement and control group. The meditative movement group was instructed to perform the meditative movement, twice a day for 9 min each, for a duration of 3 weeks. During the same time of the day, the control group was instructed to rest under the same condition. To measure changes in cognitive abilities, a dual n-back task was performed before and after the intervention and analyzed by repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). During the task, electroencephalogram signals were collected to find the relation of brain activity with working memory performance and was analyzed by regression analysis. A repeated two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction showed that working memory performance was significantly increased by meditative movement compared with the retest effect. Based on regression analysis, the amplitude of high-beta rhythm in the F3 channel showed a significant correlation with dual n-back score in the experimental group after the intervention, while there was no correlation in the control group. Our results suggest that meditative movement improves the performance of working memory, which is related to brain activity in adolescents.

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[2019] Gintonin Enhances Proliferation, Late Stage Differentiation, and Cell Survival From Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells
  • 저자Mohammad Al Mijan, Ji Young Kim, So-Young Moon, Sun-Hye Choi, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Frontiers in Pharmacology
  • 초록

    Although evidence on myelin diseases is steadily accumulating, effective preventive or therapeutic strategies against them have not been established so far. Ginseng is well known for its beneficial effects on health and diseases; however, detailed studies on ginseng’s effects on myelin-producing oligodendrocytes have not been performed yet. In this study, we investigated the function of gintonin—an active component of ginseng—on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. We performed real-time percutaneous coronary intervention, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry on primary oligodendrocyte precursor cell cultures and in vitro myelinating co-cultures. Our results show that gintonin stimulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation. Gintonin’s effect was inhibited by Ki16425, an antagonist of lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 receptors. Interestingly, with regard to cell differentiation, gintonin facilitated late differentiation of oligodendrocyte development, but not early differentiation. Moreover, it showed protective effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death, potentially by modulating unfolded protein responses. Our results suggest that gintonin is a potential therapeutic candidate in the treatment of myelin diseases.

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[2019] Dendropanax morbiferus leaf extract facilitates oligodendrocyte development
  • 저자Ji-Young Kim , Ju-Young Yoon , Yuki Sugiura , Soo-Kyoung Lee , Jae-Don Park , Gyun-Jee Song and Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Royal Society Open Science, 6(6), p.190266.
  • 초록

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis is effective when anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and regenerative strategies are combined. Dendropanax morbiferus (DM) has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative properties, which may be beneficial for multiple sclerosis. However, there have been no reports on the effects of DM on myelination, which is critical for regenerative processes. To know whether DM benefits myelination, we checked differentiation and myelination of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in various primary culture systems treated with DM leaf EtOH extracts or control. DM extracts increased the OL membrane size in the mixed glial and pure OL precursor cell (OPC) cultures and changed OL-lineage gene expression patterns in the OPC cultures. Western blot analysis of DM-treated OPC cultures showed upregulation of MBP and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In myelinating cocultures, DM extracts enhanced OL differentiation, followed by increased axonal contacts and myelin gene upregulations such as Myrf, CNP and PLP. Phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS identified multiple components from DM extracts, containing bioactive molecules such as quercetin, cannabidiol, etc. Our results suggest DM extracts enhance OL differentiation, followed by an increase in membrane size and axonal contacts, thereby indicating enhanced myelination. In addition, we found that DMextracts contain multiple bioactive components, warranting further studies in relation to finding effective components for enhancing myelination.

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[2019] Brain education-based meditation for patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes A pilot randomized controlled trial
  • 저자Seung-Ho Lee, Sun-Mi Hwang, Do-Hyung Kang, Hyun-Jeong Yang
  • 저널명Medicine. 98(19):e15574, May 2019.
  • 초록

    Background: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases, which generally require lifetime care. Meditation and yoga can be complementary to pharmacological therapies according to the scientific evidences so far. Brain education-based meditation (BEM) is a technique, which has been known to change brain structure, psychology, and physiology of healthy adult participants. This randomized, nonblinded pilot trial aimed to examine whether BEM affects the conditions of patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes compared with health education classes.
    Methods: We randomly allocated 48 patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes to BEM (n=24) or health education (n=24) classes in the Ulsan Junggu Public Health Center in Korea, where the classes were run during the same period and explored the impact of 8-week practice on the serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Total RNA was extracted to examine inflammatory gene expressions from the whole blood using PAXgene blood RNA System. In addition, self-reports on mental/physical health were evaluated. The Student’s t test, chi-squared test, and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis.
    Results: The number of people who participated until the completion of the study was 14 in the control and 21 in the BEM group. After 8 weeks, LDL cholesterol level was significantly decreased in the BEM group after the intervention (13.82mg/dL reduction, P<.05), while it was not significantly altered in the control group. The expression of inflammatory genes was significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the BEM training (0.3-, 0.5-, and 0.2-fold change for NFKB2, RELA, and IL1B, respectively, all P<.05). In the item analysis of mental/physical health self-reports, a significant improvement was confirmed as follows: increases in focus, confidence, relaxation, and happiness; decreases in fatigue, anger, and loneliness (all P<.05). There were no important adverse events or side effects by BEM intervention.
    Conclusion: Compared to health education, BEM helps lower LDL cholesterol level and the inflammatory gene expression in the patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Moreover, BEM induces positive effects on the self-reported mental/physical states, warranting further study.

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[2018] Differences in Functional Connectivity of the Insula Between Brain Wave Vibration in Meditators and Non-meditators
  • 저자J.H.Jang, J.H.Kim, J.Y.Yun, S.H.Choi, S.C.An, D.H.Kang
  • 저널명Mindfulness (2018)s12671-018-0928-x
  • 초록The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects. Thirty-five BrainWave Vibration meditation practitioners and 33 controls without meditation experience were included in this study. All subjects underwent 4.68-min resting-state functional scanning runs using magnetic resonance imaging. The anterior and posterior insulae were chosen as seed regions for the functional connectivity map. Meditation practitioners showed significantly greater insula-related functional connectivity in the thalamus, caudate, middle frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus than did controls. Control subjects demonstrated greater functional connectivity with the posterior insula in the parahippocampal gyrus. Our findings suggest that the practice of Brain Wave Vibration meditation may be associated with functional differences in regions related to focused attention, executive control, and emotional awareness and regulation.

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[2018] In-Depth Relationships between Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits in Meditation Practitioners
  • 저자S.H.Choi, S.C.An, U.S.Lee, J.Y.Yun, J.H.Jang, D.H.Kang
  • 저널명Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2018;16(4):391-397
  • 초록Objective: Meditation can elicit trait-like changes in psychological and social styles, as well as enhancement of emotional regulatory capacity. We investigated the relation between personality traits and emotional intelligence in meditation practitioners. Methods: Seventy-two long-term practitioners of mind-body training (MBT) and 62 healthy comparative individuals participated in the study. The participants completed emotional intelligence questionnaires and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Results: The MBT group revealed higher scores on all five emotional intelligence factors than did those in the control group, such as emotional awareness and expression, empathy, emotional thinking, emotional application, and emotional regulation (all p≤0.001). MBT practitioners also had higher scores on the intuition of perceiving function (t =-2.635, p =0.010) and on the feeling of the judging function (t =-3.340, p =0.001) of the MBTI compared with those in the control group. Only the MBT group showed a robust relationship with every factor of emotional intelligence and MBTI-defined intuitive styles, indicating that higher scores of emotional intelligence were related to higher scores for intuition. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence of meditation practitioners showed notable relationships with some features of personality trait. In-depth associations between emotional intelligence and personality traits would help to foster psychological functions in meditation practitioners.

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[2018] 중년 직장 여성의 스트레스와 우울에 미치는 뇌교육 기반 기공 프로그램의 효과
  • 저자오주원, 신재한, 강윤정, 연주헌
  • 저널명Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology
  • 초록본 연구는 중년 직장 여성의 스트레스와 우울을 감소시키기 위한 뇌교육 기반 기공프로그램을 개발하고 프로그램의 효과를 검증하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 종속변수를 측정하기 위한 도구로 스트레스의 정도를 측정하는 질문지 척도와 우울의 정도를 측정하는 질문지 척도를 사용하였으며, 이들의 생화학적 변화를 확인하고자 혈액을 분석하였다. 연구대상은 전남의 oo대학교 영양팀 40~60대 여성 40명 (20명 실험집단, 20명 통제집단)을 대상으로 하였다. 실험집단과 통제집단 모두 사전과 사후에 스트레스 척도와 우울척도 설문을 실시하고 혈액을 채취하였다. 실험집단은 주 2회(50분) 12주간 뇌교육기반 기공 프로그램을 실시하였으며, 통제집단은 하지 않았다. 자료 분석은 독립표본 t검증, 대응표본 t검증 및 two-way ANOVA분석이 사용되었다. 연구결과는 뇌교육 기반 기공 프로그램이 중년 직장여성의 우울의 정도를 감소시키는 것으로 나타났으며, 스트레스 정도에서는 유의미한 감소가 나타나지 않았다. 혈액 분석 결과, Insulin, Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol에서 통제집단에 비하여 실험집단에서 감소율이 더 높게 나타났지만 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 이러한 결과는 뇌교육 기반 기공 프로그램이 중년여성의 우울정도를 감소시키는 데 영향을 미치는 것이라 할 수 있겠으나 생물학적인 지표의 확인은 앞으로의 연구에서 밝혀져야 할 것이다.

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