Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress management program as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in patients with anxiety disorder
- 저자Sang Hyuk Lee, Seung Chan Ahn, Yu Jin Lee, Tae Kyu Choi, Ki Hwan Yook, Shin Young Suh
- 저널명Journal of Psycholsomatic Research
- 초록Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a meditation-based stress management program in patients with anxiety disorder. Methods Patients with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to an 8-week clinical trial of either a meditation-based stress management program or an anxiety disorder education program. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90—Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to measure outcome at 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of the program. Results Compared to the education group, the meditation-based stress management group showed significant improvement in scores on all anxiety scales (HAM-A, P=.00; STAI state, P=.00; STAI trait, P=.00; anxiety subscale of SCL-90-R, P=.00) and in the SCL-90-R hostility subscale (P=.01). Findings on depression measures were inconsistent, with no significant improvement shown by subjects in the meditation-based stress management group compared to those in the education group. The meditation-based stress management group did not show significant improvement in somatization, obsessive–compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity scores, or in the SCL-90-R phobic anxiety subscale compared to the education group. Conclusions A meditation-based stress management program can be effective in relieving anxiety symptoms in patients with anxiety disorder. However, well-designed, randomized, and controlled trials are needed to scientifically prove the worth of this intervention prior to treatment.
 장생보법 훈련이 신체증상 지각 및 뇌 영역별 활성에 미치는 영향
- 저널명한국스포츠리서치. 2007, 제18권 4호, 통권 103호, pp. 413-424
- 초록This study aims to examine the influence of 'Jangsaeng Walking' on activation conditions of brain and 'psychosomatic symptom' through comparison of 'common walking' and 'Jangsaeng Walking' with 40 women between 30 and 50 years old. 20 of 40 selected women were assigned to experimental group and 20 others to control group and experimental group conducted Jangsaeng Walking for 30 min. per semester through four times a week for 8 weeks. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured for 5 min. through 3 times at the first stability period, the second walking period and the third stability period. Electrode was attached to measured parts such as Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, T3, T4, P3 and P4 by International 10/20 electrode system and relative power and cross correlation analysis were conducted. Questionnaire of psychosomatic symptoms was conducted before measuring EEG and comparison between groups was performed. As a result of repeated measure two way ANOVA, relative power by each frequency band of EEG showed significant difference between groups in alpha wave and gamma wave and relative power of alpha wave and gamma wave and cross correlation coefficient were analyzed. In the analysis of relative power, alpha wave showed significant difference between groups in Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4 and P3 and gamma wave did in Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, T3 and P3. Experimental group showed significant decrease in alpha wave at the 2nd walking period compared to the first stability period, but gamma wave showed significant increase. In cross correlation analysis, alpha wave showed significant differences in total 11 electrode pairs and gamma wave did in 12 electrode pairs. In particular, at the second walking period, experimental group showed increase of functional cooperation between electrode pairs to parietal lobe centering around frontal lobe compared to control group. Changes of psychosomatic symptoms showed significant decrease at 'headache' and 'digestion' of four sub-factors in experimental group and it was found that perception of psychosomatic symptoms was improved.
 Neural correlates of superior intelligence : Stronger recruitment of posterior parietal cortex.
- 저자K.H.Lee, Y.Y.Choi, Jeremy R. Gray, S.H.Cho, J.H.Chae, S.H.Lee, K.G.Kim,
- 저널명NeuroImage. Vol 29(2). 578~586.
- 초록General intelligence (g) is a common factor in diverse cognitive abilities and a major influence on life outcomes. Neuroimaging studies in adults suggest that the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices play a crucial role in related cognitive activities including fluid reasoning, the control of attention, and working memory. Here, we investigated the neural bases for intellectual giftedness (superior-g) in adolescents, using fMRI. The participants consisted of a superior-g group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 33.9 T 0.8, >99%) from the national academy for gifted adolescents and the control group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 22.8 T 1.6, 60%) from local high schools in Korea (mean age = 16.5 T 0.8). fMRI data were acquired while they performed two reasoning tasks with high and low g-loadings. In both groups, the high g-loaded tasks specifically increased regional activity in the bilateral fronto-parietal network including the lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices. However, the regional activations of the superior-g group were significantly stronger than those of the control group, especially in the posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, regression analysis revealed that activity of the superior and intraparietal cortices (BA 7/40) strongly covaried with individual differences in g (r = 0.71 to 0.81). A correlated vectors analysis implicated bilateral posterior parietal areas in g. These results suggest that superior-g may not be due to the recruitment of additional brain regions but to the functional facilitation of the fronto-parietal network particularly driven by the posterior parietal activation.
 The effects of environmental luminance on colour perception in heightened sensory perception(HSP) trained children.
- 저자S.W.Kim, S.H.Ahn, D.P.Jang, J.H.Ku, Sumners D.P., U.S.Lee, Z.H.Cho S.H.Lee,
- 저널명Acta Physiologica, Vol 186, supplement 1, 249. Poster presentation
 Stimuls intensity dependence of colour perception by heightened sensory perception(HSP) trained children.
- 저자S.H.Ahn, S.W.Kim, D.P.Jang, J.H.Ku, Sumners D.P., U.S.Lee, Z.H.Cho S.H.Lee
- 저널명Acta Physiologica, Vol 186, supplement 1, 250. Poster presentation
 Preliminary studies of ESP developed by somatosensory training
- 저자S.H.Ahn, M.K.Sung, S.W.Kim, S.C.An, U.S.Lee. & S.H.Lee
- 저널명Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 23(1), 164 ~ 168.
- 초록Researchers of the Korea Institute of Brain Science(KIBS) have developed Brain Respiration(BR) which is a brain-development program using Qi. In the BR training course, we found paranormal phenomenon on which children could obtain visual information under conditions of non-visual sensing. We named the phenomenon HSP(Heightened Sensory Perception); it can be developed through a training program based on somatosensory perception. In view of that, HSP is considered to be different from extrasensory perception. In the paper, first, we summarize demonstrations of HSP since 1998. Second, we introduce EEG and fMRI results of HSP, where blindfolded subjects were presented with randomly displayed stimuli(colors and shapes) on a monitor. The control state was achieved in the same experimental conditions but with eyes-open and no blindfold. We found through fMRI and EEG analyses that during HSP specific areas were activated and alpha and gamma waves changed spatiotemporally. Finally, we discuss the problems raised in the experiments and their analyses.
 뇌호흡이 초등학생의 학습효율성에 미치는 영향
- 저자오미경, 신혜숙, 이승헌
- 저널명교육학연구, 2004. 6, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 511-542
- 초록본 연구의 목적은 초등학생의 학습효율성을 향상시키기 위하여 뇌호흡 프로그램을 개발〮적용하고 그 교육적 효과를 검증하는 데 있다. 이를 위하여 뇌호흡 전체 프로그램 중에서 일부를 발췌하여 뇌감각깨우기, 뇌용량 키우기, 뇌스피드 높이기의 세 영역으로 구성되는 뇌호흡 프로그램을 개발하였다. 초등학교 5학년 두 학급을 선정하여 사전〮사후검사 통제집단 설계를 적용하여 3개월간 주 2회(1회 40분) 총24회에 걸쳐 뇌호흡 프로그램을 실시하였다. 측정도구로는 학습효율성검사를 사용하였으며, 자료분석은 Repeated Measures ANOVA 방식을 사용하였다. 분석결과, 뇌호흡 프로그램은 초등학생들의 학습효율성에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 구체적 하위요인으로는 집중력, 학습전략, 학습수용성, 자기관리전략 및 정서조절 전략에서 유의미한 증가가 나타났다.
 뇌호흡 명상 훈련에 따른 프로농구선수의 기분상태 및 스트레스 호르몬 변화
- 저자심준영, 안승찬, 유하진, 이승헌
- 저널명한국체육학회지, 2004, 제43권, 제1호, pp.153-161
- 초록This study was to examine profiles of mood states(POMS) and changes of ACTH and Cortisol which are stress hormones in 10 pro basketball players when brain respiration program is applied to them. The experiment was conducted by total 6 times for one hour per session though two weeks and the results of two measurements before and after the last training were analyzed. POMS showed a significant reduction in depression, anger and fatigue which are negative emotional states of six sub-factors before and after the training and vigor which is positive emotional state increased after training and showed higher level than the whole mean, but there was a statistically significant difference. And the concentration of ACTH and Cortisol showed a significant reduction before and after training. The above conclusions suggested that short-term brain respiration meditation training was an effective training method to change mental emotional states and physiological stress hormone level affirmatively. Further, the future researches must analyze the physiological and psychological characteristics affecting mental health synthetically and develop brain respiration program suitable to the various items and classes.
 중·장년층의 스트레스 완화를 위한 뇌호흡 프로그램 적용 효과
- 저자심준영, 오미경, 안승찬, 이승헌
- 저널명한국스포츠리서치. 2003, 제14권, 제4호, pp.1341~1354
- 초록This study assigns 21 subjects randomly who had no brain respiration training and regular exercise experience to 7 subjects with brain respiration training, 7 subjects with aerobic exercise experience and 7 subjects of control group in order to examine their physiological reactions of stress when brain respiration program was applied to the middle-aged class in their thirties and forties, and the experiment was conducted for one hour per session by three times a week for 8 weeks. After eight-week experiment, it measured ACTH, Cortisol, heart rate(HR), skin conductance level(SCL) and breath rate(BR) before and after stimulus when they were exposed to auditory noise and mental arithmetic stressor and analyzed results. ACTH and Cortisol showed little change or reduction in brain respiration group before and after stimulus, compared to the increase of ACTH and Cortisol in aerobic exercise group and control group, but there was significantly significant trend in HR, SCL and BR. In particular, in ACTH density, brain respiration group showed a significant change between group and period and it is found that application of brain respiration program is effective in reducing vigorous maintenance of homeostasis of temporary stimulus and reaction against stress.
 12주간의 뇌호흡 명상 프로그램에 따른 세포성 면역 반응 분석
- 저자심준영, 안용덕, 신혜숙
- 저널명한국체육학회지 제42권 제1호 2003.01 121 - 133
- 초록This study conducts an experiment with 26 male students in the fourth grade of elementary school who have no brain respiration training and regular exercise experiences in order to examine the effects of brain respiration training for 12 weeks on cellular immunity reaction through six times a week (30 min. for brain respiration group and 20 min. for relaxation exercise group) through 12 weeks by random assignment of 10 students having brain respiration, 8 students having relaxation exercise and 8 students. The first measurement was in stability period before experiment and the second was in stability period after experiment for 12 weeks Measured items include T lymphocyte which is cellular immunity variable, helper T cell, suppressor T cell and Th/Ts ratio and as a result of analyzing these measurements, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) It is shown that the number of T lymphocytes a significant difference between interrelation effects according to each group and before and after experiment. 2) It is didn`t show that the number of helper T cell and suppressor T cells a significant difference between effects according to each group and before and after experiment. 3) It is shown that Th/Ts ratio a significant difference in effects before and after experiment and in interrelation effects according to each group and before and after experiment. These conclusions mean that as brain respiration training increases the Th/Ts ration which is an important index of immune ability, immune ability is improved and it suggests that it is able to change neurophysiological functions of human body. Therefore, brain respiration training is very helpful to improve health of human body and can approach to accessibility of brain respiration related to exercise.
 Changes in EEG of Children During Brain Respiration-Training.
- 저자 Y.Y.Kim, J.M.Choi, S.Y.Kim, S.K.Park, K.H.Lee, S.H.Lee
- 저널명The American Journal of Chinese medicine
- 초록Brain Respiration (BR)-training is a unique form of breathing exercise that develops potential ability by facilitating brain function. It is recognized as an effective method of improving the scholastic aptitude and emotional stability of children. The present study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the EEG during this training. Spectral analysis was used to examine the relative power in the EEG of 12 children while they practiced BR-training, and these were compared to those of 12 matched controls. BR-trainees showed a lower θ rhythm than the controls before the training session began and lower β2 power before, during and after the session. In contrast, the BR subjects showed greater relative α1 power than the controls in the left frontal region during BR-training, which persisted throughout the BR-training schedule. There is evidence that decreased θ and β waves may be correlated with emotional maturation, whilst increased α waves are associated with educational achievement. These findings enhance our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of the effects of BR-training upon emotion and maturation.
 Spatio-temporal Pattern of EEG in Young Brain Respiration-training Children
- 저자H.R.Kim, S.Y.Kim, D.J.Kim, Y.Y.Kim, S.K.Park, J.H.Chae, K.S.Kim, K.H.Lee, S.H.Lee
- 저널명The American Journal of Chinese medicine
- 초록We have evaluated the effect of 'Brain Respiration' training on brain activity using Karhunen-Loeve (KL) decomposition as a method for spatio-temporal analysis of the electroencephalogram(EEG). BR training is a form of breath-work to optimize the function of the brain by concentrating Qi energy in the brain. Recently, BR-training has been reported to improve emotional maturity (i.e., EQ), short-term memory and intuition (Yoo et al., 1998). EEG data were taken during BR-training from 12 young BR-trainees (average age: 9.4 years) who had trained for 4 to 14 months, and during relaxation from age matched non-trained children. Spatio-temporal analysis showed a significant difference of EEG dynamics in right prefrontal, right inferior frontal, posterior temporal, parietal and occipital areas between BR-trainees and the control group. Amplitude of eigenvector components of BR-trainees in the areas of frontal, temporal and occipital cortex was larger than that of non-trained children (values were smaller in parietal cortex), with remarkably high amplitude alpha coherence all over the scalp. These results suggest that BR-training possibly activates brain function through changes in the activity of the frontal association area where higher mental integration and creative activities are mediated.